A war between Israel and Gaza’s Hamas rulers erupted after the Palestinian Islamist movement launched the worst attack in Israel’s 75-year history on October 7.
Israeli officials say more than 1,400 people, mainly civilians, were killed.
The Hamas-run health ministry in Gaza said Saturday that 9,488 Palestinians have been killed in Israeli bombardments, including 3,900 children.
Hamas attacks Israel
At dawn on October 7, the sabbath and a Jewish holiday, rockets rain down on Israel from Gaza as hundreds of Hamas fighters infiltrate by land, sea, and air into southern Israel.
More than 1,400 people, mainly civilians, are killed, according to Israeli officials.
They include 270 mainly young people at a music festival and hundreds more in communities near the Gaza border.
The militants take hostage of more than 240 people — Israelis and foreigners, officials say.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu speaks of “savagery not seen since the Shoah” — Hebrew for the Holocaust.
He vows to “crush” Hamas, designated a “terrorist organisation” by the United States, Britain, Israel and the European Union.
Israel retaliates, pounds Gaza
Israel rapidly retaliates, pounding Gaza with air strikes as it battles Hamas fighters still inside Israel. It retakes control of the Gaza border area on October 10.
Israel announces a “complete siege” on October 9, cutting off power and food deliveries, then water supplies to Gaza’s 2.4 million residents.
On October 13, Israel urges northern Gaza’s citizens to move south within 24 hours. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians flee.
The Arab League denounces a “forced transfer”.
Israel, Hezbollah clash
Further north, Israel exchanges cross-border fire with Lebanon’s Hezbollah, a Hamas ally also backed by Iran.
In southern Lebanon, a Reuters video journalist is killed on October 13, and six journalists from AFP, Reuters and Al Jazeera are wounded in a strike.
Lebanon blames Israel.
Hospital strike in Gaza
On October 17, a deadly strike hits Gaza’s Al-Ahli hospital.
The Hamas health ministry says at least 471 people were killed. US intelligence sources say “100 to 300” people died.
Israel denies responsibility, blaming a misfired rocket by Islamic Jihad militants.
Thousands stage anti-Israel protests across the Arab world.
Five hostages freed
On October 20 and 22, four hostages, all women, are released. On October 30, an Israeli soldier, also a woman, is rescued in a ground operation by Israeli forces.
On October 28, Hamas says it is prepared to free hostages in return for Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails.
Aid trucks enter Gaza
The first humanitarian aid trucks enter via Gaza’s Rafah border crossing with Egypt on October 21. More than 370 trucks enter by November 3.
Israel intensifies strike
On October 21, Israel intensifies its air strikes.
Iran warns the next day that the Middle East risks spiralling out of control.
Violations of humanitarian law
UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres on October 24 denounces “the clear violations of international humanitarian law” in Gaza.
At least 1.4 million Palestinians have fled their homes since the war began, the UN says.
Israeli tanks into Gaza
On October 26, Israeli tanks enter Gaza for several hours.
The UN General Assembly calls the next day for an “immediate humanitarian truce”.
International Criminal Court prosecutor Karim Khan on October 29 says preventing access to humanitarian aid could be “a crime”.
On October 27 the Israeli army says it has “expanded” its ground operations inside Gaza.
Netanyahu announces “the second stage of the war” aimed at destroying Hamas’s military and leadership capabilities and rescuing the hostages.
A ceasefire “will not happen”, he says.
On October 31, Israeli forces report “fierce battles” inside Gaza.
Evacuations to Egypt
On November 1 Egypt opens the Rafah crossing. Dozens of wounded Palestinians and hundreds of foreigners and dual nationals leave Gaza.
Egypt says it will help evacuate “about 7,000” foreigners and dual nationals.
Refugee camp bombed
Between October 31 and November 2 Israel’s military strikes northern Gaza’s Jabalia refugee camp three times.
Four UN schools sheltering displaced people are also hit.
UN-mandated human rights experts say “time is running out to prevent genocide and humanitarian catastrophe in Gaza”.
Israel surrounds Gaza City
After almost a week of ground fighting in northern Gaza, Israel’s army announces on November 2 it has surrounded Gaza City.
On November 3, Israel begins sending back thousands of Palestinian workers stuck in Israel since hostilities started.
In Tel Aviv, US Secretary of State Antony Blinken reiterates that Israel has the “right” and “obligation” to defend itself, but urges it to protect Palestinian civilians in Gaza.
He says Israel will only gain security through the creation of a Palestinian state.
Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah warns Israel against attacking Lebanon, saying “all options” are on the table, including “total war”.
Hamas says a deadly Israeli strike hit a convoy of ambulances near the territory’s largest hospital.
On November 4, Blinken reaffirms US support for “humanitarian pauses” in the fighting, an idea Netanyahu has rejected.
Israeli chief of staff Lieutenant General Herzi Halevi visits troops on the ground inside Gaza.
(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)